Vulnerability of an individual or group is characterised by the degree to which an external event converts into losses in their well-being. The concept of vulnerability is used to describe the capacities of individuals and social groups to respond to the impacts of adverse events.


Lindley, S., O’Neill, J., Kandeh, J., Lawson, N., Christian, R. & O’Neill M. (2011) “Climate change, justice and vulnerability”, Joseph Rowntree Foundation Report, York